Walking In Nature Changes The Brain

In my city there is a very large and beautiful park filled with mature trees (150 + years). It’s lush and green and I’ve always felt so calm being there.

I’m considering renting a house close to that park early next year while I sort a few things and plan my next steps.

At present I live by the sea and I’m lucky to be surrounded by beautiful beaches but I prefer being around old trees. I guess we all have power spots that we love and that energize us.

It would be a good place to clear my mind. Walking around and enjoying the beauty and space is restorative and the lush green is so calming.

My realize my mind has been so scattered .. for years!! But I am starting to feel so much better physically and I feel calmer and more able to focus on the present and on what I need to do right now. I guess being so sick from chronic illness, stress and heartache, all I could do was dream, plan and imagine better future. My everyday reality was very difficult to live in. I was very sick and very alone and I guess my mind was willing but my body was too weak to move forward anywhere :o(

Constantly living in the future was driving me crazy but maybe it gave me a sense of hope..

I’m ready to move forward in healthy ways and to keep it simple for my well-being. It’s going to take some sacrifices but it will be better for me in the long run.

I’m starting to feel better physically and emotionally and I am less reactive to people and foods. My aches and pains are decreasing and disappearing also.

I’ve been through the wringer and I worked so hard to recover so I maybe it’s slowly starting to pay off. 2016 could be a very good year. Calmer, simpler, more positive and happier.

SG x

Most of us today live in cities and spend far less time outside in green, natural spaces than people did several generations ago.

City dwellers also have a higher risk for anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses than people living outside urban centers, studies show.

These developments seem to be linked to some extent, according to a growing body of research. Various studies have found that urban dwellers with little access to green spaces have a higher incidence of psychological problems than people living near parks and that city dwellers who visit natural environments have lower levels of stress hormones immediately afterward than people who have not recently been outside.

But just how a visit to a park or other green space might alter mood has been unclear. Does experiencing nature actually change our brains in some way that affects our emotional health?

That possibility intrigued Gregory Bratman, a graduate student at the Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources at Stanford University, who has been studying the psychological effects of urban living. In an earlier study published last month, he and his colleagues found that volunteers who walked briefly through a lush, green portion of the Stanford campus were more attentive and happier afterward than volunteers who strolled for the same amount of time near heavy traffic.

But that study did not examine the neurological mechanisms that might underlie the effects of being outside in nature.

So for the new study, which was published last week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Mr. Bratman and his collaborators decided to closely scrutinize what effect a walk might have on a person’s tendency to brood.

Brooding, which is known among cognitive scientists as morbid rumination, is a mental state familiar to most of us, in which we can’t seem to stop chewing over the ways in which things are wrong with ourselves and our lives. This broken-record fretting is not healthy or helpful. It can be a precursor to depression and is disproportionately common among city dwellers compared with people living outside urban areas, studies show.

Perhaps most interesting for the purposes of Mr. Bratman and his colleagues, however, such rumination also is strongly associated with increased activity in a portion of the brain known as the subgenual prefrontal cortex.

If the researchers could track activity in that part of the brain before and after people visited nature, Mr. Bratman realized, they would have a better idea about whether and to what extent nature changes people’s minds.

Mr. Bratman and his colleagues first gathered 38 healthy, adult city dwellers and asked them to complete a questionnaire to determine their normal level of morbid rumination.

The researchers also checked for brain activity in each volunteer’s subgenual prefrontal cortex, using scans that track blood flow through the brain. Greater blood flow to parts of the brain usually signals more activity in those areas.

Then the scientists randomly assigned half of the volunteers to walk for 90 minutes through a leafy, quiet, parklike portion of the Stanford campus or next to a loud, hectic, multi-lane highway in Palo Alto. The volunteers were not allowed to have companions or listen to music. They were allowed to walk at their own pace.

Immediately after completing their walks, the volunteers returned to the lab and repeated both the questionnaire and the brain scan.

As might have been expected, walking along the highway had not soothed people’s minds. Blood flow to their subgenual prefrontal cortex was still high and their broodiness scores were unchanged.

But the volunteers who had strolled along the quiet, tree-lined paths showed slight but meaningful improvements in their mental health, according to their scores on the questionnaire. They were not dwelling on the negative aspects of their lives as much as they had been before the walk.

They also had less blood flow to the subgenual prefrontal cortex. That portion of their brains were quieter.

These results “strongly suggest that getting out into natural environments” could be an easy and almost immediate way to improve moods for city dwellers, Mr. Bratman said.

But of course many questions remain, he said, including how much time in nature is sufficient or ideal for our mental health, as well as what aspects of the natural world are most soothing. Is it the greenery, quiet, sunniness, loamy smells, all of those, or something else that lifts our moods? Do we need to be walking or otherwise physically active outside to gain the fullest psychological benefits? Should we be alone or could companionship amplify mood enhancements?

“There’s a tremendous amount of study that still needs to be done,” Mr. Bratman said.

But in the meantime, he pointed out, there is little downside to strolling through the nearest park, and some chance that you might beneficially muffle, at least for awhile, your subgenual prefrontal cortex.


3 thoughts on “Walking In Nature Changes The Brain

  1. This is very interestinh. Nature grounds us and helps us feel connected to all life. It gives us a feeling of purpose and belonging in the world.

    The busy traffic puts us into a stress state…with some people triggers fight or flight mode because there is an element of danger from the drivers.

    Trees and ocean waters….or running brooks…some people may be more drawn to a certain kind of nature. I love water….maybe a Pisces trait. I love the ocean and miss it. I have not seen the ocean in many many years.

    There is a park near here. My 12 year old daughter loves to go there and walk near tbe trees. It has a bridge over a brook which I love. A lake with fish and turtles.

    My daughter likes to take pictures there and just be where there are nature soinds and smells.

    I could see you liking to live near the park, so that you can walk within tbe trees.

  2. My place of peace is and always has been around big old trees. I couldn’t make it through a good day without touching base with nature at least once. I love the sound of that park you spoke of SG, it sounds like a great place to live close to.

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